F. Kranzl, S. Birnkammer, M. K. Joshi, A. Bastianello, R. Blatt, M. Knap, C. F. Roos Observation of magnon bound states in the long-range, anisotropic Heisenberg model,
Phys. Rev. X 13 031017-12 (2023-08-11),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevX.13.031017 doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.13.031017 (ID: 720909)
Over the recent years coherent, time-periodic modulation has been established as a versatile tool for realizing novel Hamiltonians. Using this approach, known as Floquet engineering, we experimentally realize a long-ranged, anisotropic Heisenberg model with tunable interactions in a trapped ion quantum simulator. We demonstrate that the spectrum of the model contains not only single magnon excitations but also composite magnon bound states. For the long-range interactions with the experimentally realized power-law exponent, the group velocity of magnons is unbounded. Nonetheless, for sufficiently strong interactions we observe bound states of these unconventional magnons which possess a non-diverging group velocity. By measuring the configurational mutual information between two disjoint intervals, we demonstrate the implications of the bound state formation on the entanglement dynamics of the system. Our observations provide key insights into the peculiar role of composite excitations in the non-equilibrium dynamics of quantum many-body systems.
F. Kranzl, A. Lasek, M. K. Joshi, A. Kalev, R. Blatt, C. F. Roos, N. Yunger Halpern Experimental observation of thermalization with noncommuting charges,
PRX Quantum 4 20318 (2023-04-28),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PRXQuantum.4.020318 doi:10.1103/PRXQuantum.4.020318 (ID: 720810)
Quantum simulators have recently enabled experimental observations of the internal thermalization of quantum many-body systems. Often, the global energy and particle number are conserved and the system is prepared with a well-defined particle number—in a microcanonical subspace. However, quantum evolution can also conserve quantities, or charges, that fail to commute with each other. Noncommuting charges have recently emerged as a subfield at the intersection of quantum thermodynamics and quantum information. Until now, this subfield has remained theoretical. We initiate the experimental testing of its predictions, with a trapped-ion simulator. We prepare 6–21 spins in an approximate microcanonical subspace, a generalization of the microcanonical subspace for accommodating noncommuting charges, which cannot necessarily have well-defined nontrivial values simultaneously. We simulate a Heisenberg evolution using laser-induced entangling interactions and collective spin rotations. The noncommuting charges are the three spin components. We find that small subsystems equilibrate to near a recently predicted non-Abelian thermal state. This work bridges quantum many-body simulators to the quantum thermodynamics of noncommuting charges, the predictions of which can now be tested.
J. Franke, S. M. Muleady, C. R. Kaubrügger, F. Kranzl, R. Blatt, A. M. Rey, M. K. Joshi, C. F. Roos Quantum-enhanced sensing on optical transitions through finite-range interactions,
Nature 1-6 (2023-03-27),
arXiv:2303.10688 arXiv:2303.10688 (ID: 721072)
The control over quantum states in atomic systems has led to the most precise optical atomic clocks to date. Their sensitivity is currently bounded by the standard quantum limit, a fundamental floor set by quantum mechanics for uncorrelated particles, which can nevertheless be overcome when operated with entangled particles. Yet demonstrating a quantum advantage in real world sensors is extremely challenging and remains to be achieved aside from two remarkable examples, LIGO and more recently HAYSTAC. Here we illustrate a pathway for harnessing scalable entanglement in an optical transition using 1D chains of up to 51 ions with state-dependent interactions that decay as a power-law function of the ion separation. We show our sensor can be made to behave as a one-axis-twisting (OAT) model, an iconic fully connected model known to generate scalable squeezing. The collective nature of the state manifests itself in the preservation of the total transverse magnetization, the reduced growth of finite momentum spin-wave excitations, the generation of spin squeezing comparable to OAT (a Wineland parameter of −3.9±0.3 dB for only N = 12 ions) and the development of non-Gaussian states in the form of atomic multi-headed cat states in the Q-distribution. The simplicity of our protocol enables scalability to large arrays with minimal overhead, opening the door to advances in timekeeping as well as new methods for preserving coherence in quantum simulation and computation. We demonstrate this in a Ramsey-type interferometer, where we reduce the measurement uncertainty by −3.2±0.5 dB below the standard quantum limit for N = 51 ions.