A. Sharafiev, M. L. Juan, O. Gargiulo, M. Zanner, S. Wögerer, J. García-Ripoll, G. Kirchmair Observing the single-photon wavefunction with frequency and time resolved spectroscopy,
arXiv:2001.09737 arXiv:2001.09737 (ID: 720494)
The quantum wavefunction, despite continuous debates on its exact physical interpretation, is a fundamental concept in quantum physics and a useful tool to describe and simulate the state of a quantum system. While wavefunctions usually are not considered to be directly observable, in this work we show how the wavefunction of a single photon can be directly visualised in frequency and time domain. Our technique relates the wavefunction of the microwave photon to measurements of the electromagnetic field quadratures. We apply this technique to studying the process of single microwave photon emission, as described theoretically by Wigner and Weisskopf in the early days of quantum physics. In our experiment the photon is emitted from a single transmon qubit or from a collective state of two coupled transmons. In both scenarios, these photon portraits agree perfectly with the predictions of Wigner-Weisskopf as well as input-output theory, exemplifying the well known energy-time Heisenberg uncertainty relation. Our work promises a new experimental analysis method in analog quantum simulation of open quantum systems and collective phenomena.