
K Slagle, Yue Liu, David Aasen, Hannes Pichler, R. S. Mong, Xie Chen, Manuel Endres, Jason Alicea Quantum spin liquids bootstrapped from Ising criticality in Rydberg arrays,
Phys. Rev. B 106 115122 (20220914),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.106.115122 doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.106.115122 (ID: 720829)
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Arrays of Rydberg atoms constitute a highly tunable, strongly interacting venue for the pursuit of exotic states of matter. We develop a new strategy for accessing a family of fractionalized phases known as quantum spin liquids in twodimensional Rydberg arrays. We specifically use effective field theory methods to study arrays assembled from Rydberg chains tuned to an Ising phase transition that famously hosts emergent fermions propagating within each chain. This highly entangled starting point allows us to naturally access spin liquids familiar from Kitaev's honeycomb model, albeit from an entirely different framework. In particular, we argue that finiterange repulsive Rydberg interactions, which frustrate nearby symmetrybreaking orders, can enable coherent propagation of emergent fermions between the chains in which they were born. Delocalization of emergent fermions across the full twodimensional Rydberg array yields a gapless Z2 spin liquid with a single massless Dirac cone. Here, the Rydberg occupation numbers exhibit universal powerlaw correlations that provide a straightforward experimental diagnostic of this phase. We further show that explicitly breaking symmetries perturbs the gapless spin liquid into gapped, topologically ordered descendants: Breaking lattice symmetries generates toriccode topological order, whereas introducing chirality generates nonAbelian Ising topological order. In the toriccode phase, we analytically construct microscopic incarnations of nonAbelian defects, which can be created and transported by dynamically controlling the atom positions in the array. Our work suggests that appropriately tuned Rydberg arrays provide a coldatoms counterpart of solidstate 'Kitaev materials' and, more generally, spotlights a new angle for pursuing experimental platforms for Abelian and nonAbelian fractionalization.

G. Giudici, M. Lukin, H. Pichler Dynamical preparation of quantum spin liquids in Rydberg atom arrays,
Phys. Rev. Lett. 129 90401 (20220826),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.090401 doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.090401 (ID: 720742)
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We theoretically analyze recent experiments [G. Semeghini et al., Science 374, 1242 (2021)] demonstrating the onset of a topological spin liquid using a programmable quantum simulator based on Rydberg atom arrays. In the experiment, robust signatures of topological order emerge in outofequilibrium states that are prepared using a quasiadiabatic state preparation protocol. We show theoretically that the state preparation protocol can be optimized to target the fixed point of the topological phase  the resonating valence bond (RVB) state of hard dimers  in a time that scales linearly with the number of atoms. Moreover, we provide a twoparameter variational manifold of tensor network (TN) states that accurately describe the manybody dynamics of the preparation process. Using this approach we analyze the nature of the nonequilibrium state, establishing the emergence of topological order.

T. Vovk, Hannes Pichler EntanglementOptimal Trajectories of ManyBody Quantum Markov Processes,
Phys. Rev. Lett. 128 243601 (20220613),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.243601 doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.243601 (ID: 720844)
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We develop a novel approach aimed at solving the equations of motion of open quantum manybody systems. It is based on a combination of generalized wave function trajectories and matrix product states. We introduce an adaptive quantum stochastic propagator, which minimizes the expected entanglement in the manybody quantum state, thus minimizing the computational cost of the matrix product state representation of each trajectory. We illustrate this approach on the example of a onedimensional open Brownian circuit. We show that this model displays an entanglement phase transition between area and volume law when changing between different propagators and that our method autonomously finds an efficiently representable area law unraveling.

S. Ebadi, Alexander Keesling, Madelyn Cain, Tout T. Wang, H. Levine, D. Bluvstein, Giulia Semeghini, Ahmed Omran, Junqiu Liu, R. Samajdar, XiuZhe Luo, B. Latz, J. Gao, B. Dayan, Edward Fahri, S. Sachdev, Nathan Gemelke, Lop Zhou, Soonwon Choi, Hannes Pi Quantum Optimization of Maximum Independent Set using Rydberg Atom Arrays,
Science 376 1215 (20220505),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abo6587 doi:10.1126/science.abo6587 (ID: 720815)
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Realizing quantum speedup for practically relevant, computationally hard problems is a central challenge in quantum information science. Using Rydberg atom arrays with up to 289 qubits in two spatial dimensions, we experimentally investigate quantum algorithms for solving the Maximum Independent Set problem. We use a hardwareefficient encoding associated with Rydberg blockade, realize closedloop optimization to test several variational algorithms, and subsequently apply them to systematically explore a class of graphs with programmable connectivity. We find the problem hardness is controlled by the solution degeneracy and number of local minima, and experimentally benchmark the quantum algorithm's performance against classical simulated annealing. On the hardest graphs, we observe a superlinear quantum speedup in finding exact solutions in the deep circuit regime and analyze its origins.

D. Bluvstein, H. Levine, G. Semeghini, T. T. Wang, S. Ebadi, M. Kalinowski, A. Keesling, N. Maskara, H. Pichler, M. Greiner, V. Vuletic, M. Lukin A quantum processor based on coherent transport of entangled atom arrays,
Nature 604 456 (20220420),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586022045926 doi:10.1038/s41586022045926 (ID: 720723)
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The ability to engineer parallel, programmable operations between desired qubits within a quantum processor is central for building scalable quantum information systems. In most stateoftheart approaches, qubits interact locally, constrained by the connectivity associated with their fixed spatial layout. Here, we demonstrate a quantum processor with dynamic, nonlocal connectivity, in which entangled qubits are coherently transported in a highly parallel manner across two spatial dimensions, in between layers of single and twoqubit operations. Our approach makes use of neutral atom arrays trapped and transported by optical tweezers; hyperfine states are used for robust quantum information storage, and excitation into Rydberg states is used for entanglement generation. We use this architecture to realize programmable generation of entangled graph states such as cluster states and a 7qubit Steane code state. Furthermore, we shuttle entangled ancilla arrays to realize a surface code with 19 qubits and a toric code state on a torus with 24 qubits. Finally, we use this architecture to realize a hybrid analogdigital evolution and employ it for measuring entanglement entropy in quantum simulations, experimentally observing nonmonotonic entanglement dynamics associated with quantum manybody scars. Realizing a longstanding goal, these results pave the way toward scalable quantum processing and enable new applications ranging from simulation to metrology.

B. Windt, H. Pichler Squeezing Quantum ManyBody Scars,
Phys. Rev. Lett. 128 90606 (20220304),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.090606 doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.128.090606 (ID: 720724)
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We develop an analytical approach for the description of quantum manybody scars in PXP models. We show that the scarred dynamics in the PXP model on a complete bipartite graph can be interpreted as a onedimensional chiral scattering problem, and solve this problem analytically. The insights from this analysis allow us to predict that dynamical signatures of scars in PXP models can be enhanced by spin squeezing the initial states. We show numerically that this stabilization mechanism applies not only to the complete bipartite graph but also to one and twodimensional lattices, which are relevant for Rydberg atom array experiments. Moreover, our findings provide a physical motivation for Hamiltonian deformations reminiscent of those known to produce perfect scars.

Iris Cong, N. Maskara, M. C. Tran, Hannes Pichler, G. Semeghini, S. F. Yelin, Soonwon Choi, M. Lukin Enhancing Detection of Topological Order by Local Error Correctio,
(20220926),
arXiv:2209.12428 arXiv:2209.12428 (ID: 720882)
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The exploration of topologicallyordered states of matter is a longstanding goal at the interface of several subfields of the physical sciences. Such states feature intriguing physical properties such as longrange entanglement, emergent gauge fields and nonlocal correlations, and can aid in realization of scalable faulttolerant quantum computation. However, these same features also make creation, detection, and characterization of topologicallyordered states particularly challenging. Motivated by recent experimental demonstrations, we introduce a new approach for quantifying topological states  locally errorcorrected decoration (LED)  by combining methods of error correction with ideas of renormalizationgroup flow. Our approach allows for efficient and robust identification of topological order, and is applicable in the presence of incoherent noise sources, making it particularly suitable for realistic experiments. We demonstrate the power of LED using numerical simulations of the toric code under a variety of perturbations, and we subsequently apply it to an experimental realization of a quantum spin liquid using a Rydbergatom quantum simulator. Extensions to the characterization of other exotic states of matter are discussed.

M.T. Nguyen, J.G. Liu, J. Wurtz, M. Lukin, S.T. Wang, Hannes Pichler Quantum optimization with arbitrary connectivity using Rydberg atom arrays,
(20220908),
arXiv:2209.03965 arXiv:2209.03965 (ID: 720883)
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Programmable quantum systems based on Rydberg atom arrays have recently been used for hardwareefficient tests of quantum optimization algorithms [Ebadi et al., Science, 376, 1209 (2022)] with hundreds of qubits. In particular, the maximum independent set problem on the socalled unitdisk graphs, was shown to be efficiently encodable in such a quantum system. Here, we extend the classes of problems that can be efficiently encoded in Rydberg arrays by constructing explicit mappings from the original computation problems to maximum weighted independent set problems on unitdisk graphs, with at most a quadratic overhead in the number of qubits. We analyze several examples, including: maximum weighted independent set on graphs with arbitrary connectivity, quadratic unconstrained binary optimization problems with arbitrary or restricted connectivity, and integer factorization. Numerical simulations on small system sizes indicate that the adiabatic time scale for solving the mapped problems is strongly correlated with that of the original problems. Our work provides a blueprint for using Rydberg atom arrays to solve a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems with arbitrary connectivity, beyond the restrictions imposed by the hardware geometry.

Vinicius S. Ferreira, G. Kim, Andreas Butler, Hannes Pichler, O. Painter Deterministic Generation of Multidimensional Photonic Cluster States with a Single Quantum Emitter,
(20220621),
arXiv:2206.10076 arXiv:2206.10076 (ID: 720849)
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Multidimensional photonic graph states, such as cluster states, have prospective applications in quantum metrology, secure quantum communication, and measurementbased quantum computation. However, to date, generation of multidimensional cluster states of photonic qubits has relied on probabilistic methods that limit the scalability of typical generation schemes in optical systems. Here we present an experimental implementation in the microwave domain of a resourceefficient scheme for the deterministic generation of 2D photonic cluster states. By utilizing a coupled resonator array as a slowlight waveguide, a single fluxtunable transmon qubit as a quantum emitter, and a second auxiliary transmon as a switchable mirror, we achieve rapid, shaped emission of entangled photon wavepackets, and selective timedelayed feedback of photon wavepackets to the emitter qubit. We leverage these capabilities to generate a 2D cluster state of four photons with 70\% fidelity, as verified by tomographic reconstruction of the quantum state. We discuss how our scheme could be straightforwardly extended to the generation of even larger cluster states, of even higher dimension, thereby expanding the scope and practical utility of such states for quantum information processing tasks.

Giacomo Giudice, F. M. Surace, Hannes Pichler, G. Giudici Trimer states with Z3 topological order in Rydberg atom arrays,
(20220520),
arXiv:2205.10387 arXiv:2205.10387 (ID: 720842)
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Trimers are defined as two adjacent edges on a graph. We study the quantum states obtained as equalweight superpositions of all trimer coverings of a lattice, with the constraint of having a trimer on each vertex: the socalled trimer resonatingvalencebond (tRVB) states. Exploiting their tensor network representation, we show that these states can host Z3 topological order or can be gapless liquids with U(1)×U(1) local symmetry. We prove that this continuous symmetry emerges whenever the lattice can be tripartite such that each trimer covers all the three sublattices. In the gapped case, we demonstrate the stability of topological order against dilution of maximal trimer coverings, which is relevant for realistic models where the density of trimers can fluctuate. Furthermore, we clarify the connection between gapped tRVB states and Z3 lattice gauge theories by smoothly connecting the former to the Z3 toric code, and discuss the nonlocal excitations on top of tRVB states. Finally, we analyze via exact diagonalization the zerotemperature phase diagram of a diluted trimer model on the square lattice and demonstrate that the ground state exhibits topological properties in a narrow region in parameter space. We show that a similar model can be implemented in Rydberg atom arrays exploiting the blockade effect. We investigate dynamical preparation schemes in this setup and provide a viable route for probing experimentally Z3 quantum spin liquids.

K. Slagle, D. Aasen, H. Pichler, R. S. Mong, P. Fendley, X. Chen, M. Endres, J. Alicea Microscopic characterization of Ising conformal field theory in Rydberg chains,
Phys. Rev. B 104 235109 (20211206),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.104.235109 doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.104.235109 (ID: 720682)

G. Semeghini, H. Levine, A. Keesling, S. Ebadi, T. T. Wang, D. Bluvstein, R. Verresen, H. Pichler, M. Kalinowski, R. Samajdar, A. Omran, S. Sachdev, A. Vishwanath, M. Greiner, V. Vuletic, M. Lukin Probing Topological Spin Liquids on a Programmable Quantum Simulator,
Science 374 1247 (20211202),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abi8794 doi:10.1126/science.abi8794 (ID: 720644)

D. S. Wild, D. Sels, H. Pichler, C. Zanoci, M. Lukin Quantum Sampling Algorithms for NearTerm Devices,
Phys. Rev. Lett. 127 100504 (20210902),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.100504 doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.100504 (ID: 720685)
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Efficient sampling from a classical Gibbs distribution is an important computational problem with applications ranging from statistical physics over Monte Carlo and optimization algorithms to machine learning. We introduce a family of quantum algorithms that provide unbiased samples by preparing a state encoding the entire Gibbs distribution. We show that this approach leads to a speedup over a classical Markov chain algorithm for several examples, including the Ising model and sampling from weighted independent sets of two different graphs. Our approach connects computational complexity with phase transitions, providing a physical interpretation of quantum speedup. Moreover, it opens the door to exploring potentially useful sampling algorithms on nearterm quantum devices, as the algorithm for sampling from independent sets on certain graphs can be naturally implemented using Rydberg atom arrays.

D. S. Wild, D. Sels, H. Pichler, C. Zanoci, M. Lukin Quantum sampling algorithms, phase transitions, and computational complexity,
Phys. Rev. A 104 32602 (20210902),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.104.032602 doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.104.032602 (ID: 720684)
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Drawing independent samples from a probability distribution is an important computational problem with applications in Monte Carlo algorithms, machine learning, and statistical physics. The problem can be solved in principle on a quantum computer by preparing a quantum state that encodes the entire probability distribution followed by a projective measurement. We investigate the complexity of adiabatically preparing such quantum states for the Gibbs distributions of various classical models including the Ising chain, hardsphere models on different graphs, and a model encoding the unstructured search problem. By constructing a parent Hamiltonian, whose ground state is the desired quantum state, we relate the asymptotic scaling of the state preparation time to the nature of transitions between distinct quantum phases. These insights enable us to identify adiabatic paths that achieve a quantum speedup over classical Markov chain algorithms. In addition, we show that parent Hamiltonians for the problem of sampling from independent sets on certain graphs can be naturally realized with neutral atoms interacting via highly excited Rydberg states.

S. Ebadi, T. T. Wang, H. Levine, A. Keesling, G. Semeghini, A. Omran, D. Bluvstein, R. Samajdar, H. Pichler, W. Ho, S. Choi, S. Sachdev, M. Greiner, V. Vuletic, M. Lukin Quantum phases of matter on a 256atom programmable quantum simulator,
Nature (20210707),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586021035824 doi:10.1038/s41586021035824 (ID: 720710)

R. Samajdar, W. Ho, H. Pichler, M. Lukin, S. Sachdev Quantum phases of Rydberg atoms on a kagome lattice,
Proc. Natl. Acad. U.S.A. 118 e2015785118 (20210126),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2015785118 doi:10.1073/pnas.2015785118 (ID: 720622)
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Programmable quantum simulators based on Rydberg atom arrays have recently emerged as versatile platforms for exploring exotic manybody phases and quantum dynamics of strongly correlated systems. In this work, we theoretically investigate the quantum phases that can be realized by arranging such Rydberg atoms on a kagome lattice. Along with an extensive analysis of the states which break lattice symmetries due to classical correlations, we identify an intriguing regime that constitutes a promising candidate for hosting a phase with longrange quantum entanglement and topological order. Our results provide a route to experimentally realizing and probing highly entangled quantum matter.

J. Perczel, J. Borregaard, D. Chang, H. Pichler, S. F. Yelin, P. Zoller, M. Lukin Photonic band structure of twodimensional atomic lattices,
Phys. Rev. A 96 63801 (20171204),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.96.063801 doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.96.063801 (ID: 719916)
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Twodimensional atomic arrays exhibit a number of intriguing quantum optical phenomena, including subradiance, nearly perfect reflection of radiation, and longlived topological edge states. Studies of emission and scattering of photons in such lattices require complete treatment of the radiation pattern from individual atoms, including longrange interactions. We describe a systematic approach to perform the calculations of collective energy shifts and decay rates in the presence of such longrange interactions for arbitrary twodimensional atomic lattices. As applications of our method, we investigate the topological properties of atomic lattices both in free space and near plasmonic surfaces.
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H. Pichler, S. Choi, P. Zoller, M. Lukin Universal photonic quantum computation via timedelayed feedback,
PNAS 114 (20171017),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1711003114 doi:10.1073/pnas.1711003114 (ID: 720008)
Toggle Abstract
We propose and analyze a deterministic protocol to generate twodimensional photonic cluster states using a single quantum emitter via timedelayed quantum feedback. As a physical implementation, we consider a single atom or atomlike system coupled to a 1D waveguide with a distant mirror, where guided photons represent the qubits, while the mirror allows the implementation of feedback. We identify the class of manybody quantum states that can be produced using this approach and characterize them in terms of 2D tensor network states.

H. Pichler, S. Choi, P. Zoller, M. Lukin Photonic tensor networks produced by a single quantum emitter,
PNAS 114 11362 (20171010),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1711003114 doi:10.1073/pnas.1711003114 (ID: 719751)
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We propose and analyze a protocol to generate two dimensional tensor network states using a single quantum system that sequentially interacts with a 1D string of qubits. This is accomplished by using parts of the string itself as a quantum queue memory. As a physical implementation, we consider a single atom or atom like system coupled to a 1D waveguide with a distant mirror, where guided photons represent the qubits while the mirror allows the implementation of the queue memory. We identify the class of manybody quantum states that can be produced using this approach. These include universal resources for measurement based quantum computation and states associated with topologically ordered phases. We discuss an explicit protocol to deterministically create a 2D cluster state in a quantum nanophotonic experiment, that allows for a realization of a quantum computer using a single atom coupled to light.
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A. Glätzle, K. Ender, D. S. Wild, S. Choi, H. Pichler, M. Lukin, P. Zoller Quantum Spin Lenses in Atomic Arrays,
Phys. Rev. X 7 31049 (20170920),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevX.7.031049 doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.7.031049 (ID: 719790)
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We propose and discuss `quantum spin lenses', where quantum states of delocalized spin excitations in an atomic medium are `focused' in space in a coherent quantum process down to (essentially) single atoms. These can be employed to create controlled interactions in a quantum lightmatter interface, where photonic qubits stored in an atomic ensemble are mapped to a quantum register represented by single atoms. We propose Hamiltonians for quantum spin lenses as inhomogeneous spin models on lattices, which can be realized with Rydberg atoms in 1D, 2D and 3D, and with strings of trapped ions. We discuss both linear and nonlinear quantum spin lenses: in a nonlinear lens, repulsive spinspin interactions lead to focusing dynamics conditional to the number of spin excitations. This allows the mapping of quantum superpositions of delocalized spin excitations to superpositions of spatial spin patterns, which can be addressed by light fields and manipulated. Finally, we propose multifocal quantum spin lenses as a way to generate and distribute entanglement between distant atoms in an atomic lattice array.
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P. Guimond, M. Pletyukhov, H. Pichler, P. Zoller Delayed Coherent Quantum Feedback from a Scattering Theory and a Matrix Product State Perspective,
Quantum Sci. Technol. 2 44012 (20170908),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/20589565/aa7f03 doi:10.1088/20589565/aa7f03 (ID: 719814)
Toggle Abstract
We study the scattering of photons propagating in a semiinfinite waveguide terminated by a mirror and interacting with a quantum emitter. This paradigm constitutes an example of coherent quantum feedback, where light emitted towards the mirror gets redirected back to the emitter. We derive an analytical solution for the scattering of twophoton states, which is based on an exact resummation of the perturbative expansion of the scattering matrix, in a regime where the time delay of the coherent feedback is comparable to the timescale of the quantum emitter's dynamics. We compare the results with numerical simulations based on matrix product state techniques simulating the full dynamics of the system, and extend the study to the scattering of coherent states beyond the lowpower limit.
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J. Perczel, J. Borregaard, D. Chang, H. Pichler, S. F. Yelin, P. Zoller, M. Lukin Topological Quantum Optics in TwoDimensional Atomic Arrays,
Phys. Rev. Lett. 119 23603 (20170714),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.023603 doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.023603 (ID: 719767)
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We demonstrate that twodimensional atomic arrays with subwavelength spacing can be used to create topologically protected quantum optical systems where the photon propagation is robust against large imperfections while losses associated with free space emission are strongly suppressed. Breaking timereversal symmetry with a magnetic field results in gapped photonic bands with nontrivial Chern numbers. Such a system displays topologically protected bound states and unidirectional emission by individual atoms into longlived edge states. Possible experimental realizations and applications are discussed.
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B. Vermersch, P. Guimond, H. Pichler, P. Zoller Quantum State Transfer via Noisy Photonic and Phononic Waveguides,
Phys. Rev. Lett. 118 133601 (20170327),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.133601 doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.133601 (ID: 719696)
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We describe a quantum state transfer protocol, where a quantum state of photons stored in a first cavity can be faithfully transferred to a second distant cavity via an infinite 1D waveguide, while being immune to arbitrary noise (e.g. thermal noise) injected into the waveguide. We extend the model and protocol to a cavity QED setup, where atomic ensembles, or single atoms representing quantum memory, are coupled to a cavity mode. We present a detailed study of sensitivity to imperfections, and develop a quantum error correction protocol to account for random losses (or additions) of photons in the waveguide. Our numerical analysis is enabled by Matrix Product State techniques to simulate the complete quantum circuit, which we generalize to include thermal input fields. Our discussion applies both to photonic and phononic quantum networks.
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P. Lodahl, S. Mahmoodian, S. Stobbe, P. Schneeweiss, J. Volz, A. Rauschenbeutel, H. Pichler, P. Zoller Chiral Quantum Optics,
Nature 541 473 (20170126),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature21037 doi:10.1038/nature21037 (ID: 719634)

M. Łącki, M. Baranov, H. Pichler, P. Zoller NanoScale `Dark State' Optical Potentials for Cold Atoms,
Phys. Rev. Lett. 117 233001 (20161130),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.233001 doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.233001 (ID: 719619)
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We discuss generation of subwavelength optical barriers on the scale of tens of nanometers, as conservative optical potentials for cold atoms. These arise from nonadiabatic corrections to BornOppenheimer potentials from dressed `dark states' in atomic Λ configurations. We illustrate the concepts with a double layer potential for atoms obtained from inserting an optical subwavelength barrier into a well generated by an offresonant optical lattice, and discuss bound states of pairs of atoms interacting via magnetic dipolar interactions. The subwavelength optical barriers represent an optical `KronigPenney' potential. We present a detailed study of the bandstructure in optical `KronigPenney' potentials, including decoherence from spontaneous emission and atom loss to open `bright' channels.

P. Guimond, H. Pichler, A. Rauschenbeutel, P. Zoller Chiral quantum optics with Vlevel atoms and coherent quantum feedback,
Phys. Rev. A 94 33829 (20160916),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.94.033829 doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.94.033829 (ID: 719590)
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We study the dissipative dynamics of an atom in a Vlevel configuration driven by lasers and coupled to a semiinfinite waveguide. The coupling to the waveguide is chiral, in that each transition interacts only with the modes propagating in a given direction, and this direction is opposite for the two transitions. The waveguide is terminated by a mirror which coherently feeds the photon stream emitted by one transition back to the atom. First, we are interested in the dynamics of the atom in the Markovian limit where the timedelay in the feedback is negligible. Specifically, we study the conditions under which the atom evolves towards a pure "dark" stationary state, where the photons emitted by both transitions interfere destructively thanks to the coherent feedback, and the overall emission vanishes. This is a singleatom analogue of the quantum dimer, where a pair of laserdriven twolevel atoms is coupled to a unidirectional waveguide and dissipates towards a pure entangled dark state. Our setup should be feasible with current stateoftheart experiments. Second, we extend our study to nonMarkovian regimes and investigate the effect of the feedback retardation on the steadystate.
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T. Ramos, B. Vermersch, P. Hauke, H. Pichler, P. Zoller NonMarkovian Dynamics in Chiral Quantum Networks with Spins and Photons,
Phys. Rev. A 93 62104 (20160602),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.93.062104 doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.93.062104 (ID: 719497)
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We study the dynamics of chiral quantum networks consisting of nodes coupled by unidirectional or asymmetric bidirectional quantum channels. In contrast to the familiar photonic networks consisting of driven twolevel atoms exchanging photons via 1D photonic nanostructures, we propose and study a setup where interactions between the atoms are mediated by spin excitations (magnons) in 1D XXspin chains representing a spin waveguide. While Markovian quantum network theory eliminates quantum channels as structureless reservoirs in a BornMarkov approximation to obtain a master equation for the nodes, we are interested in nonMarkovian dynamics. This arises from the nonlinear character of the dispersion with bandedge effects, and from finite spin propagation velocities leading to time delays in interactions. To account for the nonMarkovian dynamics we treat the quantum degrees of freedom of the nodes and connecting channel as a composite spin system with the surrounding of the quantum network as a Markovian bath, allowing for an efficient solution with timedependent density matrix renormalization group techniques. We illustrate our approach showing nonMarkovian effects in the drivendissipative formation of quantum dimers, and we present examples for quantum information protocols involving quantum state transfer with engineered elements as basic building blocks of quantum spintronic circuits.
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H. Pichler, G. Zhu, A. Seif, P. Zoller, M. Hafezi A Measurement Protocol for the Entanglement Spectrum of Cold Atoms,
Phys. Rev. X 6 41033 (20160517),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041033 doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041033 (ID: 719569)
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Entanglement plays a major role in characterizing manybody quantum systems. In particular, the entanglement spectrum holds a great promise to characterize essential physics of quantum manybody systems. While there has been a surge of theoretical works on the subject, no experimental measurement has been performed to this date, due to the lack of an implementable measurement scheme. Here, we propose a measurement protocol to access the entanglement spectrum of manybody states in experiments with cold atoms in optical lattices. Our scheme effectively performs a Ramsey spectroscopy of the entanglement Hamiltonian, and is based on the ability to produce several copies of the state under investigation together with the possibility to perform a global swap gate between two copies conditioned on the state of an auxiliary qubit. We show how the required conditional swap gate can be implemented with cold atoms, either by using Rydberg interactions or coupling the atoms to a cavity mode. We illustrate these ideas on a simple (extended) BoseHubbard model where such a measurement protocol reveals topological features of the Haldane phase.
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H. Pichler, P. Zoller Photonic Quantum Circuits with Time Delays,
Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 93601 (20160303),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.093601 doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.093601 (ID: 719362)
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We study the dynamics of photonic quantum circuits consisting of nodes coupled by quantum channels. We are interested in the regime where the time delay in communication between the nodes is significant. This includes the problem of quantum feedback, where a quantum signal is fed back on a system with a time delay. We develop a matrix product state approach to solve the quantum stochastic Schrödinger equation with time delays, which accounts in an efficient way for the entanglement of nodes with the stream of emitted photons in the waveguide, and thus the nonMarkovian character of the dynamics. We illustrate this approach with two paradigmatic quantum optical examples: two coherently driven distant atoms coupled to a photonic waveguide with a time delay, and a driven atom coupled to its own output field with a time delay as an instance of a quantum feedback problem.
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M. Łącki, H. Pichler, A. Sterdyniak, A. Lyras, V. Lembessis, O. AlDossary, J. Budich, P. Zoller Quantum Hall Physics with Cold Atoms in Cylindrical Optical Lattices,
Phys. Rev. A 93 13604 (20160107),
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.93.013604 doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.93.013604 (ID: 719282)
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We propose and study various realizations of a HofstadterHubbard model on a cylinder geometry with fermionic cold atoms in optical lattices. The cylindrical optical lattice is created by counterpropagating LaguerreGauss beams, i.e. light beams carrying orbital angular momentum. By strong focusing of the light beams we create a real space optical lattice in the form of rings, which are offset in energy. A second set of LaguerreGauss beams then induces a Ramanhopping between these rings, imprinting phases corresponding to a synthetic magnetic field (artificial gauge field). In addition, by rotating the lattice potential, we achieve a slowly varying flux through the hole of the cylinder, which allows us to probe the Hall response of the system as a realization of Laughlin's thought experiment. We study how in the presence of interactions fractional quantum Hall physics could be observed in this setup.
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