Kerr enhanced backaction cooling in magnetomechanics
Precise control over massive mechanical objects is highly desirable for testing fundamental physics and for sensing applications. A very promising approach is cavity optomechanics, where a mechanical oscillator is coupled to a cavity. Usually, such mechanical oscillators are in highly excited thermal states and require cooling to the mechanical ground state for quantum applications, which is often accomplished by utilising optomechanical backaction. However, this is not possible for increasingly massive oscillators, as due to their low frequencies conventional cooling methods are less effective. Here, we demonstrate a novel cooling scheme by using an intrinsically nonlinear cavity together with a low frequency mechanical oscillator. We demonstrate outperforming an identical, but linear, system by more than one order of magnitude. While currently limited by flux noise, theory predicts that with this approach the fundamental cooling limit of a linear system can not only be reached, but also outperformed. These results open a new avenue for efficient optomechanical cooling by exploiting a nonlinear cavity.
Strongly dipolar gases in a one-dimensional lattice: Bloch oscillations and matter-wave localization
Three-dimensional quantum gases of strongly dipolar atoms can undergo a crossover from a dilute gas to a dense macrodroplet, stabilized by quantum fluctuations. Adding a one-dimensional optical lattice creates a platform where quantum fluctuations are still unexplored, and a rich variety of new phases may be observable. We employ Bloch oscillations as an interferometric tool to assess the role quantum fluctuations play in an array of quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates. Long-lived oscillations are observed when the chemical potential is balanced between sites, in a region where a macrodroplet is extended over several lattice sites. Further, we observe a transition to a state that is localized to a single lattice plane−driven purely by interactions−marked by the disappearance of the interference pattern in the momentum distribution. To describe our observations, we develop a discrete one-dimensional extended Gross-Pitaevskii theory, including quantum fluctuations and a variational approach for the on-site wavefunction. This model is in quantitative agreement with the experiment, revealing the existence of single and multisite macrodroplets, and signatures of a two-dimensional bright soliton.
Simulating dynamical phases of chiral p+ip superconductors with a trapped ion magnet
Two-dimensional p+ip superconductors and superfluids are systems that feature chiral behavior emerging from the Cooper pairing of electrons or neutral fermionic atoms with non-zero angular momentum. Their realization has been a longstanding goal because they offer great potential utility for quantum computation and memory. However, they have so far eluded experimental observation both in solid state systems as well as in ultracold quantum gases. Here, we propose to leverage the tremendous control offered by rotating two-dimensional trapped-ion crystals in a Penning trap to simulate the dynamical phases of two-dimensional p+ip superfluids. This is accomplished by mapping the presence or absence of a Cooper pair into an effective spin-1/2 system encoded in the ions' electronic levels. We show how to infer the topological properties of the dynamical phases, and discuss the role of beyond mean-field corrections. More broadly, our work opens the door to use trapped ion systems to explore exotic models of topological superconductivity and also paves the way to generate and manipulate skyrmionic spin textures in these platforms.
Towards experimental classical verification of quantum computation
With today's quantum processors venturing into regimes beyond the capabilities of classical devices [1-3], we face the challenge to verify that these devices perform as intended, even when we cannot check their results on classical computers [4,5]. In a recent breakthrough in computer science [6-8], a protocol was developed that allows the verification of the output of a computation performed by an untrusted quantum device based only on classical resources. Here, we follow these ideas, and demonstrate in a first, proof-of-principle experiment a verification protocol using only classical means on a small trapped-ion quantum processor. We contrast this to verification protocols, which require trust and detailed hardware knowledge, as in gate-level benchmarking , or additional quantum resources in case we do not have access to or trust in the device to be tested . While our experimental demonstration uses a simplified version  of Mahadev's protocol  we demonstrate the necessary steps for verifying fully untrusted devices. A scaled-up version of our protocol will allow for classical verification, requiring no hardware access or detailed knowledge of the tested device. Its security relies on post-quantum secure trapdoor functions within an interactive proof . The conceptually straightforward, but technologically challenging scaled-up version of the interactive proofs, considered here, can be used for a variety of additional tasks such as verifying quantum advantage , generating  and certifying quantum randomness , or composable remote state preparation .
Probing phases of quantum matter with an ion-trap tensor-network quantum eigensolver
Tensor-Network (TN) states are efficient parametric representations of ground states of local quantum Hamiltonians extensively used in numerical simulations. Here we encode a TN ansatz state directly into a quantum simulator, which can potentially offer an exponential advantage over purely numerical simulation. In particular, we demonstrate the optimization of a quantum-encoded TN ansatz state using a variational quantum eigensolver on an ion-trap quantum computer by preparing the ground states of the extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. The generated states are characterized by estimating the topological invariants, verifying their topological order. Our TN encoding as a trapped ion circuit employs only single-site addressing optical pulses - the native operations naturally available on the platform. We reduce nearest-neighbor crosstalk by selecting different magnetic sublevels with well-separated transition frequencies to encode even and odd qubits.
Quantum spin liquids bootstrapped from Ising criticality in Rydberg arrays
Arrays of Rydberg atoms constitute a highly tunable, strongly interacting venue for the pursuit of exotic states of matter. We develop a new strategy for accessing a family of fractionalized phases known as quantum spin liquids in two-dimensional Rydberg arrays. We specifically use effective field theory methods to study arrays assembled from Rydberg chains tuned to an Ising phase transition that famously hosts emergent fermions propagating within each chain. This highly entangled starting point allows us to naturally access spin liquids familiar from Kitaev's honeycomb model, albeit from an entirely different framework. In particular, we argue that finite-range repulsive Rydberg interactions, which frustrate nearby symmetry-breaking orders, can enable coherent propagation of emergent fermions between the chains in which they were born. Delocalization of emergent fermions across the full two-dimensional Rydberg array yields a gapless Z2 spin liquid with a single massless Dirac cone. Here, the Rydberg occupation numbers exhibit universal power-law correlations that provide a straightforward experimental diagnostic of this phase. We further show that explicitly breaking symmetries perturbs the gapless spin liquid into gapped, topologically ordered descendants: Breaking lattice symmetries generates toric-code topological order, whereas introducing chirality generates non-Abelian Ising topological order. In the toric-code phase, we analytically construct microscopic incarnations of non-Abelian defects, which can be created and transported by dynamically controlling the atom positions in the array. Our work suggests that appropriately tuned Rydberg arrays provide a cold-atoms counterpart of solid-state 'Kitaev materials' and, more generally, spotlights a new angle for pursuing experimental platforms for Abelian and non-Abelian fractionalization.