Most Recent Preprints
Observing emergent hydrodynamics in a long-range quantum magnet
Identifying universal properties of non-equilibrium quantum states is a major challenge in modern physics. A fascinating prediction is that classical hydrodynamics emerges universally in the evolution of any interacting quantum system. Here, we experimentally probe the quantum dynamics of 51 individually controlled ions, realizing a long-range interacting spin chain. By measuring space-time resolved correlation functions in an infinite temperature state, we observe a whole family of hydrodynamic universality classes, ranging from normal diffusion to anomalous superdiffusion, that are described by L\'evy flights. We extract the transport coefficients of the hydrodynamic theory, reflecting the microscopic properties of the system. Our observations demonstrate the potential for engineered quantum systems to provide key insights into universal properties of non-equilibrium states of quantum matter.
Optimal metrology with variational quantum circuits on trapped ions
Cold atoms and ions exhibit unparalleled performance in frequency metrology epitomized in the atomic clock. More recently, such atomic systems have been used to implement programmable quantum computers and simulators with highest reported operational fidelities across platforms. Their strength in metrology and quantum information processing offers the opportunity to utilize tailored, programmable entanglement generation to approach the `optimal quantum sensor' compatible with quantum mechanics. Here we report quantum enhancement in metrology beyond squeezing through low-depth, variational quantum circuits searching for optimal input states and measurement operators in a trapped ion platform. We perform entanglement-enhanced Ramsey interferometry finding optimal parameters for variational quantum circuits using a Bayesian approach to stochastic phase estimation tailored to the sensor platform capabilities and finite dynamic range of the interferometer. We verify the performance by both directly using theory predictions of optimal parameters, and performing online quantum-classical feedback optimization to `self-calibrate' the variational parameters. In both cases we find that variational circuits outperform classical and direct spin squeezing strategies under realistic noise and imperfections. With 26 ions we achieve 2.02(8) dB of metrological gain over classical interferometers.
Proposal for measuring out-of-time-ordered correlators at finite temperature with coupled spin chains
Information scrambling, which is the spread of local information through a system's many-body degrees of freedom, is an intrinsic feature of many-body dynamics. In quantum systems, the out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) quantifies information scrambling. Motivated by experiments that have measured the OTOC at infinite temperature and a theory proposal to measure the OTOC at finite temperature using the thermofield double state, we describe a protocol to measure the OTOC in a finite temperature spin chain that is realized approximately as one half of the ground state of two moderately-sized coupled spin chains. We consider a spin Hamiltonian with particle-hole symmetry, for which we show that the OTOC can be measured without needing sign-reversal of the Hamiltonian. We describe a protocol to mitigate errors in the estimated OTOC, arising from the finite approximation of the system to the thermofield double state. We show that our protocol is also robust to main sources of decoherence in experiments.
Coherent control of a symmetry-engineered multi-qubit dark state in waveguide quantum electrodynamics
Quantum information is typically encoded in the state of a qubit that is decoupled from the environment. In contrast, waveguide quantum electrodynamics studies qubits coupled to a mode continuum, exposing them to a loss channel and causing quantum information to be lost before coherent operations can be performed. Here we restore coherence by realizing a dark state that exploits symmetry properties and interactions between four qubits. Dark states decouple from the waveguide and are thus a valuable resource for quantum information but also come with a challenge: they cannot be controlled by the waveguide drive. We overcome this problem by designing a drive that utilizes the symmetry properties of the collective state manifold allowing us to selectively drive both bright and dark states. The decay time of the dark state exceeds that of the waveguide-limited single qubit by more than two orders of magnitude. Spectroscopy on the second excitation manifold provides further insight into the level structure of the hybridized system. Our experiment paves the way for implementations of quantum many-body physics in waveguides and the realization of quantum information protocols using decoherence-free subspaces.
Quantum spin stabilized magnetic levitation in the presence of dissipation